We have no Saints to honor this day, but today is the second of three Ember Days for this season of the year; today is also a Friday in Lent, so today is a Day of Abstinence from Meat. And on this date during World War II in 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, allowing the United States military to relocate Japanese-Americans to Japanese internment camps.
Today is the second of three Ember Days for this season of the year. Ember days (a corruption from the Latin Quatuor Tempora, four times) are the days at the beginning of the seasons ordered by the Church as days of fast and abstinence. They were definitely arranged and prescribed for the entire Church by Pope Gregory VII (1073 – 1085) for the consecutive Wednesday, Friday, and Saturday after December 13 (the feast of St. Lucy), after Ash Wednesday, after Whitsunday (Pentecost), and after September 14 (Exaltation of the Cross). The purpose of their introduction, besides the general one intended by all prayer and fasting, was to thank God for the gifts of nature, to teach men to make use of them in moderation, and to assist the needy. The 1942 Order as signed by President Roosevelt authorized the Secretary of War and U.S. armed forces commanders to declare areas of the United States as military areas “from which any or all persons may be excluded,” although it did not name any nationality or ethnic group. It was eventually applied to one-third of the land area of the U.S. (mostly in the West) and was used against those with “Foreign Enemy Ancestry” — Japanese, Italians, and Germans. The order led to the internment of Japanese Americans or AJAs (Americans of Japanese Ancestry); some 120,000 ethnic Japanese people were held in internment camps for the duration of the war. Of the Japanese interned some 62% were Nisei (American-born, second-generation Japanese Americans and therefore American citizens) or Sansei (third-generation Japanese Americans, also American citizens) and the rest were Issei (Japanese immigrants and resident aliens, first-generation Japanese Americans). Japanese Americans were by far the most widely affected group, as all persons with Japanese ancestry were removed from the West Coast and southern Arizona. In Hawaii, where there were 140,000 Americans of Japanese Ancestry (constituting 37 percent of the population), only selected individuals of heightened perceived risk were interned. Americans of Italian and German ancestry were also targeted by these restrictions, including internment. 11,000 people of German ancestry were interned, as were 3,000 people of Italian ancestry, along with some Jewish refugees. The Jewish refugees who were interned came from Germany, and the U.S. government did not (or would not) differentiate between ethnic Jews and ethnic Germans. Some of the internees of European descent were interned only briefly, and others were held for several years beyond the end of the war. Like the Japanese internees, these smaller groups had American-born citizens in their numbers, especially among the children. A few members of ethnicities of other Axis countries were interned, but exact numbers are unknown. Executive Order 9066 was rescinded by President Gerald Ford on February 19, 1976.
On Thursday evening our LSU Women’s Basketball lost their away game with #12 Texas A&M by the score of 54 to 68; our Lady Tigers will next play a home game with #24 Tennessee on Sunday afternoon.
I did my Bathroom Devotional Reading, and on our way to work I did my Internet Devotional Reading. Once at the casino Richard called the Pharmacy to renew a prescription. After we clocked in Richard was the Relief Dealer for Mini Baccarat and Pai Gow, and also broke regular Blackjack table once and the Sit-Down Blackjack table once. I started out on the second Mississippi Stud table, closed that table, and spent the rest of the day on Pai Gow.
After work Richard picked up his prescription at the Pharmacy. We stopped at Wal-Mart so that he could get some groceries. Once we got home I ate my lunch salad and read the morning paper. I then took a nap for the rest of the day, and did not do my Daily Update. Our New Orleans Pelicans at home beat the Philadelphia 76ers by the score of 121 to 114; our Pelicans will next play an away game with the Detroit Pistons on Sunday afternoon. And our LSU Baseball team won their home opener in the first game of a three day series with Cincinnati by the score of 6 to 5.
Tomorrow is the Optional Memorial of Blessed Jacinta Marto (died 1920) and Blessed Francisco Marto (died 1919); tomorrow is also the Third of Three Ember Days for this season of the year. And tomorrow begins Early Voting for the Louisiana Presidential Preference Primary and Municipal Primary Election on March 5th. We will work our eight hours at the casino, and on my breaks I will do my Daily Update for yesterday, Friday, February 19th, 2016 via WordPress for Android. In the afternoon I will go to the Adoration Chapel to do my Weekly Hour of Eucharistic Adoration. Our LSU Baseball team will play the second game of their three game home series with Cincinnati in the afternoon, and our LSU Men’s Basketball team will play an away game with Tennessee in the late afternoon.
Our Parting Quote on this Friday afternoon comes to us from Donald Richie, American author and filmmaker. Born in 1924 in Lima, Ohio, at the age of 17 he had made his first experimental film. During World War II he served aboard Liberty ships as a purser and medical officer. By then he had already published his first work, “Tumblebugs” (1942), a short story. In 1947 Richie first visited Japan with the American occupation force. He first worked as a typist, and then as a civilian staff writer for the Pacific Stars and Stripes. While in Tokyo he became fascinated with Japanese culture, particularly Japanese cinema. He was soon writing movie reviews in the Stars and Stripes. In 1948 he met Kashiko Kawakita who introduced him to Yasujiro Ozu. During their long friendship, Richie and Kawakita collaborated closely in promoting Japanese film in the West. After returning to the United States, he enrolled at Columbia University’s School of General Studies in 1949 and received a B.S. degree in English in 1953. Richie then returned to Japan as film critic for The Japan Times. The greater tolerance in Japan at the time for homosexuality than in the United States was a reason he gave for returning to Japan, as he was openly bisexual. He spent much of the second half of the 20th century there. In 1959 he published his first major book, The Japanese Film: Art and Industry, coauthored with Joseph Anderson. In this work the authors gave the first English language account of Japanese film. Richie continued writing books on Japanese cinema and Japanese culture for almost fifty years. He continued making short experimental films through 1968; six of these films are now on DVD. Richie served as Curator of Film at the New York Museum of Modern Art from 1969 to 1972, and in 1971 he was given a Special Award by the National Society of Film Critics Awards. In 1983 he was the first recipient of the Kawakita Award. In 1988 he was invited to become the first guest director at the Telluride Film Festival. In 1991 film makers Lucille Carra and Brian Cotnoir produced a film version of his travel book The Inland Sea, which Richie narrated. Produced by Travelfilm Company, the film won numerous awards, including Best Documentary at the Hawaii International Film Festival (1991) and the Earthwatch Film Award. It screened at the Sundance Film Festival in 1992. In 1993 he was awarded the John D. Rockefeller 3rd Award (Asian Cultural Council), and in 1995 he was awarded the Japan Foundation Award. He compiled two collections of essays on Japan: A Lateral View: Essays on Culture and Style in Contemporary Japan (1992) and Partial Views: Essays on Contemporary Japan (1995). A collection of his writings, The Donald Richie Reader (2001) was published to commemorate fifty years of writing. The Japan Journals: 1947 – 2004 (2005) consists of extended excerpts from his diaries. Although Richie spoke Japanese fluently, he could neither read nor write it proficiently. He wrote the English subtitles for Akira Kurosawa’s films Red Beard (1965), Kagemusha (1980), and Dreams (1990). Richie also penned analyses of two of Japan’s best known filmmakers: Yasujiro Ozu and Akira Kurosawa. In the 21st century he provided audio commentaries for The Criterion Collection on DVDs of various classic Japanese films, notably those of Ozu (A Story of Floating Weeds and Early Summer), Mikio Naruse (When a Woman Ascends the Stairs), and Kurosawa (Drunken Angel, Rashomon, The Lower Depths, and The Bad Sleep Well), among others (died 2013): “When I started to learn how to read, I discovered . . . I could create an environment that I didn’t have, and I could order this environment in the way that I couldn’t in my actual life. Then, when I learned to write, I learned that I could do this not only for myself, but for other people. I could create whole things that were believable, at least to myself, at that point. And in this way, I began to wield an authority and a power that I had not had before. In other words, every child goes through this. Some pick football and some pick the library. I picked the library.”
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