Today is the Seventh Sunday in Ordinary Time. We have no Saints to honor this day, but on this date during World War II in 1942, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed Executive Order 9066, allowing the United States military to relocate Japanese-Americans to Japanese internment camps (and on this date in 1976, President Gerald Ford rescinded Executive Order 9066).
Our Gospel reading for the Seventh Sunday in Ordinary Time (year A) is from Matthew 5:38-48; Jesus tells his disciples, “You have heard that it was said, ‘You shall love your neighbor and hate your enemy.’ But I say to you, love your enemies and pray for those who persecute you.” Turning to the secular world, the 1942 Order as signed by President Roosevelt authorized the Secretary of War and U.S. armed forces commanders to declare areas of the United States as military areas “from which any or all persons may be excluded,” although it did not name any nationality or ethnic group. It was eventually applied to one-third of the land area of the United States (mostly in the West) and was used against those with “Foreign Enemy Ancestry”, namely, Japanese, Italians, and Germans. The order led to the internment of Japanese Americans or AJAs (Americans of Japanese Ancestry); some 120,000 ethnic Japanese people were held in internment camps for the duration of the war. Of the Japanese interned some 62% were Nisei (American-born, second-generation Japanese Americans and therefore American citizens) or Sansei (third-generation Japanese Americans, also American citizens) and the rest were Issei (Japanese immigrants and resident aliens, first-generation Japanese Americans). Japanese Americans were by far the most widely affected group, as all persons with Japanese ancestry were removed from the West Coast and southern Arizona. In Hawaii, where there were 140,000 Americans of Japanese Ancestry (constituting 37 percent of the population), only selected individuals of heightened perceived risk were interned. Americans of Italian and German ancestry were also targeted by these restrictions, including internment. 11,000 people of German ancestry were interned, as were 3,000 people of Italian ancestry, along with some Jewish refugees. The Jewish refugees who were interned came from Germany, and the U.S. government did not (or would not) differentiate between ethnic Jews and ethnic Germans. Some of the internees of European descent were interned only briefly, and others were held for several years beyond the end of the war. Like the Japanese internees, these smaller groups had American-born citizens in their numbers, especially among the children. A few members of ethnicities of other Axis countries were interned, but exact numbers are unknown. Executive Order 9066 was rescinded by President Gerald Ford on February 19th, 1976.
Yesterday, in their second College Baseball game, our LSU Tigers beat the Army Black Knights by the score of 6 to 0. Our LSU Tigers lost their College Basketball game with the Alabama Crimson Wave by the score of 72 to 90; our LSU Tigers (9-17, 1-13) will next play a Home College Basketball game with the Auburn Tigers (16-11, 5-9) on Tuesday, February 21st, 2017. Our LSU Lady Tigers in their College Softball games first beat the Georgia Southern Lady Eagles by the score of 10 to 1, then beat the Central Arkansas Lady Bears by the score of 9 to 2.
Richard was still not feeling good, but he decided to go to work rather than take more time off. I did my Book Devotional Reading, and on our way to work I did my Internet Devotional Reading. Today was the last day of the two-week pay period at the casino; today was also the second day of the two-day Heavy Business Volume Day period for President’s Day. Richard attended the Sunday Pre-Shift Meeting. Out on the casino floor, Richard was first the dealer on Macau Mini Baccarat; when that table closed, he was a Check Racker on Roulette, then was the dealer on Mississippi Stud for the rest of the day. I was on the second Pai Gow table; when that table closed, I was on a Blackjack table for twenty minutes, then became the dealer on Pai Gow for the rest of the day. On my breaks I continued reading The Death House by Sarah Pinborough via Kindle on my tablet, and Richard and I both got our $5.00 meal comps, given to everyone in Table Games to celebrate another stellar score in Guest Satisfaction. (We scored something like 72%, which is apparently outstanding; I would prefer a scale from 1 to 10, or perhaps 1 to 11.)
On our way home I continued reading The Death House by Sarah Pinborough via Kindle on my tablet until I got to a good stopping place. Once home from work I read the Sunday papers; I then came to the computer to do today’s Daily Update, as I plan to go to bed for the duration after I finish this Daily Update. In sports, our LSU Tigers will play a home College Baseball game with the Air Force Falcons. Our LSU Lady Tigers will be playing two College Softball games, first with the Central Arkansas Lady Bears, then with the Georgia Southern Lady Eagles. And our LSU Lady Tigers (18-8, 7-6) will be playing an Away College Basketball game with the Georgia Lady Bulldogs (13-3, 5-8); I will post the scores of these games in tomorrow’s Daily Update.
Tomorrow is the Optional Memorial of Blessed Jacinta Marto (died 1920) and Blessed Francisco Marto (died 1919). It is also the World Day of Social Justice, and since tomorrow is the Third Monday in February, tomorrow is Washington’s Birthday (Observed) / Presidents’ Day. Tomorrow is the first day of the two-week pay period at the casino, and on my breaks I will finish reading The Death House by Sarah Pinborough via Kindle on my tablet. Once I get home from work (after lunch), I will do my Book Review for this weblog and for my Goodreads and Facebook accounts for The Death House by Sarah Pinborough.
Our Parting Quote on this Sunday afternoon comes to us from Harper Lee, American author. Born as Nelle Harper Lee in 1926 in Monroeville, Alabama, her first name (the name she went by outside of literary life) was her grandmother’s name spelled backwards. Her father, a former newspaper editor and proprietor, practiced law and served in the Alabama State Legislature from 1926 to 1938. While in high school Lee developed an interest in English literature. After graduating from high school in 1944, she attended the then all-female Huntingdon College in Montgomery for a year, then transferred to the University of Alabama in Tuscaloosa, where she studied law for several years and wrote for the university newspaper, but did not complete a degree. In the summer of 1948, Lee attended a summer school in European civilization at Oxford University in England, financed by her father, who hoped (in vain, as it turned out) that the experience would make her more interested in her legal studies in Tuscaloosa. In 1949 Lee moved to New York City and took a job as an airline reservation agent, writing fiction in her spare time. Having written several long stories, Lee found an agent in November 1956. The following month, at Michael Brown’s East 50th Street townhouse, she received a gift of a year’s wages from friends with a note: “You have one year off from your job to write whatever you please. Merry Christmas.” In the spring of 1957, a 31-year-old Lee delivered the manuscript for Go Set a Watchman to her agent to send out to publishers, including the now-defunct J. B. Lippincott Company, which eventually bought it. At Lippincott, the novel fell into the hands of Therese von Hohoff Torrey (known professionally as Tay Hohoff), who was impressed by the manuscript, but who thought the manuscript was by no means fit for publication. During the next couple of years, she led Lee from one draft to the next until the book finally achieved its finished form and was retitled To Kill a Mockingbird. When the novel was finally ready, the author opted to use the name “Harper Lee”, rather than risk having her first name Nelle be misidentified as “Nellie”. Published on July 11th, 1960, To Kill a Mockingbird was an immediate bestseller and won great critical acclaim, including the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1961. It remains a bestseller, with more than 30 million copies in print. The film adaptation of the book, starring Gregory Peck as Atticus Finch (who won an Oscar for his performance) came out in 1962. Lee became friends with Peck; his grandson was named after her. Lee then accompanied childhood friend Truman Capote (who appeared as Dill Harris in To Kill a Mockingbird) to Holcomb, Kansas, to assist him in researching what they thought would be an article on a small town’s response to the murder of a farmer and his family. Capote expanded the material into his best-selling book, In Cold Blood, published in 1966. In January 1966 President Lyndon B. Johnson appointed Lee to the National Council on the Arts. Lee returned to Monroeville and granted almost no requests for interviews or public appearances and, with the exception of a few short essays, published nothing further until 2015. She did work on a follow-up novel, provisionally titled The Long Goodbye, but eventually filed it away unfinished. Late in 1978, Lee spent some time in Alexander City, Alabama, researching a true-crime book called The Reverend, which was never published. During the mid-1980s, she began a factual book about an Alabama serial murderer, but also put it aside when she was not satisfied. When Lee attended the 1983 Alabama History and Heritage Festival in Eufaula, Alabama, she presented the essay “Romance and High Adventure”. In 1999 To Kill a Mockingbird was voted “Best Novel of the Century” in a poll by the Library Journal. In March 2005 Lee arrived in Philadelphia (her first trip to the city since signing with publisher Lippincott in 1960) to receive the inaugural ATTY Award for positive depictions of attorneys in the arts from the Spector Gadon & Rosen Foundation. At the urging of Peck’s widow, Veronique Peck, Lee traveled by train from Monroeville to Los Angeles in 2005 to accept the Los Angeles Public Library Literary Award. She also attended luncheons for students who did written essays based on her work, held annually at the University of Alabama. On May 21st, 2006, she accepted an honorary degree from the University of Notre Dame, where graduating seniors saluted her with copies of To Kill a Mockingbird during the ceremony. On November 5th, 2007, George W. Bush presented Lee with the Presidential Medal of Freedom. This is the highest civilian award in the United States and recognizes individuals who have made “an especially meritorious contribution to the security or national interests of the United States, world peace, cultural or other significant public or private endeavors”. In 2010 President Barack Obama awarded Lee the National Medal of Arts, the highest award given by the United States government for “outstanding contributions to the excellence, growth, support and availability of the arts”. On May 3rd, 2013, Lee had filed a lawsuit in the United States District Court to regain the copyright to To Kill a Mockingbird, seeking unspecified damages from a son-in-law of her former literary agent and related entities. Lee claimed that the man “engaged in a scheme to dupe” her into assigning him the copyright on the book in 2007, when her hearing and eyesight were in decline, and she was residing in an assisted-living facility after having suffered a stroke. In September 2013 attorneys for both sides announced a settlement of the lawsuit. That same year it had come to the attention of Lee that the Monroe County Heritage Museum was promoting itself and selling souvenirs related to To Kill a Mockingbird without her consent. Lee’s attorneys filed a trademark application on August 19th, 2013, to which the museum filed an opposition. This prompted Lee’s attorney to file a lawsuit on October 15th that same year; in February 2014, Lee settled the lawsuit against the Monroe County Heritage Museum for an undisclosed amount. In 2014 when Lee’s lawyer re-examined Lee’s safe deposit book, she found the original manuscript for Go Set a Watchman, which was thought to have been lost. After contacting Lee and reading the manuscript, she passed it on to Lee’s agent Andrew Nurnberg. The book was published in July 2015 as a sequel to To Kill a Mockingbird, though it was confirmed to be the first draft of the latter, with many narrative incongruities, repackaged and released as a completely separate work. The book was set some 20 years after the time period depicted in Mockingbird, when Scout returns as an adult from New York to visit her father in Maycomb, Alabama. The publication of the novel (announced by her lawyer) raised concerns over why Lee, who for fifty-five years had maintained that she would never write another book, would suddenly choose to publish again; there were allegations that the publication had taken place without Lee’s full consent (died 2016): “I never expected any sort of success with Mockingbird. I was hoping for a quick and merciful death at the hands of the reviewers, but, at the same time I sort of hoped someone would like it well enough to give me encouragement. Public encouragement. I hoped for a little, as I said, but I got rather a whole lot, and in some ways this was just about as frightening as the quick, merciful death I’d expected.”